ESSEX STREET
  • Cameron Rowland
    91020000, Artists Space, New York, 2016
    Installation view
  • Cameron Rowland
    New York State Unified Court System, 2016
    Oak wood, distributed by Corcraft
    165 x 57.5 x 36 inches
    Rental at cost

    Courtrooms throughout New York State use benches built by prisoners in Green Haven Correctional Facility. The court reproduces itself materially through the labor of those it sentences. 
  • Cameron Rowland
    Attica Series Desk, 2016
    Steel, powder coating, laminated particleboard, distributed by Corcraft
    60 x 71.5 x 28.75 inches
    Rental at cost

    The Attica Series Desk is manufactured by prisoners in Attica Correctional Facility. Prisoners seized control of the D-Yard in Attica from September 9th to 13th 1971. Following the inmates' immediate demands for amnesty, the first in their list of practical proposals was to extend the enforcement of "the New York State minimum wage law to prison industries." Inmates working in New York State prisons are currently paid $0.10 to $1.14 an hour. Inmates in Attica produce furniture for government offices throughout the state. This component of government administration depends on inmate labor.
  • Cameron Rowland
    Disgorgement, 2016
    Reparations Purpose Trust, Aetna Shares

    Aetna, amongst other insurance companies, issued slave insurance policies, which combined property and life insurance. These policies were taken out by slave masters on the lives of slaves, and provided partial payments for damage to the slave and full payment for the death of the slave. Death or damage inflicted by the master could not be claimed. The profits incurred by these policies are still intact within Aetna. 

    In 1989 Congressman John Conyers of Michigan first introduced Congressional Bill H.R. 40, which would "Establish the Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans to examine slavery and discrimination in the colonies and the United States from 1619 to the present and recommend appropriate remedies." The bill would convene a research commission, that would, among other responsibilities, make a recommendation as to whether a formal apology for slavery is owed, whether reparations are owed, what form reparations would then take and who would receive them. Conyers has reintroduced the bill to every session of congress since then. This bill acquired 48 cosponsors in 1999-2000. Currently it has no cosponsors. 

    In 2000 the state of California passed the bill SB 2199, which required all insurance companies conducting business in the state of California to publish documentation of slave insurance policies that they or their parent companies had issued previously. In 2002 a lawyer named Deadria Farmer-Paellmann filed the first corporate reparations class-action lawsuit seeking disgorgement from 17 contemporary financial institutions including Aetna, Inc., which had profited from slavery. Farmer-Paellmann pursued property law claims on the basis that these institutions had been enriched unjustly by slaves who were neither compensated nor agreed to be uncompensated. Farmer-Paellman called for these profits and gains to be disgorged from these institutions to descendants of slaves. 

    The Reparations Purpose Trust forms a conditionality between the time of deferral and continued corporate growth. The general purpose of this trust is “to acquire and administer shares in Aetna, Inc. and to hold such shares until the effective date of any official action by any branch of the United States government to make financial reparations for slavery, including but not limited to the enactment and subsequent adoption of any recommendations pursuant to H.R. 40 – Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act.” As a purpose trust registered in the state of Delaware this trust can last indefinitely and has no named beneficiaries. 

    The initial holdings of Reparations Purpose Trust consists of 90 Aetna shares. In the event that federal financial reparations are paid, the trust will terminate and its shares will be liquidated and granted to the federal agency charged with distributions as a corporate addendum to these payments. The grantor of the Reparations Purpose Trust is Artists Space, its trustee is Michael M. Gordon, and its enforcer is Cameron Rowland. The Reparations Purpose Trust gains tax-exemption from its grantor’s nonprofit status. 
  • Detail of:
    Cameron Rowland
    Disgorgement, 2016
    Reparations Purpose Trust, Aetna Shares

    Aetna, amongst other insurance companies, issued slave insurance policies, which combined property and life insurance. These policies were taken out by slave masters on the lives of slaves, and provided partial payments for damage to the slave and full payment for the death of the slave. Death or damage inflicted by the master could not be claimed. The profits incurred by these policies are still intact within Aetna. 

    In 1989 Congressman John Conyers of Michigan first introduced Congressional Bill H.R. 40, which would "Establish the Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans to examine slavery and discrimination in the colonies and the United States from 1619 to the present and recommend appropriate remedies." The bill would convene a research commission, that would, among other responsibilities, make a recommendation as to whether a formal apology for slavery is owed, whether reparations are owed, what form reparations would then take and who would receive them. Conyers has reintroduced the bill to every session of congress since then. This bill acquired 48 cosponsors in 1999-2000. Currently it has no cosponsors. 

    In 2000 the state of California passed the bill SB 2199, which required all insurance companies conducting business in the state of California to publish documentation of slave insurance policies that they or their parent companies had issued previously. In 2002 a lawyer named Deadria Farmer-Paellmann filed the first corporate reparations class-action lawsuit seeking disgorgement from 17 contemporary financial institutions including Aetna, Inc., which had profited from slavery. Farmer-Paellmann pursued property law claims on the basis that these institutions had been enriched unjustly by slaves who were neither compensated nor agreed to be uncompensated. Farmer-Paellman called for these profits and gains to be disgorged from these institutions to descendants of slaves. 

    The Reparations Purpose Trust forms a conditionality between the time of deferral and continued corporate growth. The general purpose of this trust is “to acquire and administer shares in Aetna, Inc. and to hold such shares until the effective date of any official action by any branch of the United States government to make financial reparations for slavery, including but not limited to the enactment and subsequent adoption of any recommendations pursuant to H.R. 40 – Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act.” As a purpose trust registered in the state of Delaware this trust can last indefinitely and has no named beneficiaries. 

    The initial holdings of Reparations Purpose Trust consists of 90 Aetna shares. In the event that federal financial reparations are paid, the trust will terminate and its shares will be liquidated and granted to the federal agency charged with distributions as a corporate addendum to these payments. The grantor of the Reparations Purpose Trust is Artists Space, its trustee is Michael M. Gordon, and its enforcer is Cameron Rowland. The Reparations Purpose Trust gains tax-exemption from its grantor’s nonprofit status. 
  • Cameron Rowland 
    1st Defense NFPA 1977, 2011, 2016
    Nomex fire suit, distributed by CALPIA
    50 x 13 x 8 inches
    Rental at cost

    "The Department of Corrections shall require of every able-bodied prisoner imprisoned in any state prison as many hours of faithful labor in each day and every day during his or her term of imprisonment as shall be prescribed by the rules and regulations of the Director of Corrections." – California Penal Code § 2700 

    CC35933 is the customer number assigned to the nonprofit organization California College of the Arts upon registering with the CALPIA, the market name for the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Prison Industry Authority. 

    Inmates working for CALPIA produce yellow Nomex fire suits for the state's non-inmate wildland firefighters. 


    Cameron Rowland 
    1st Defense NFPA 1977, 2011, 2016
    Nomex fire suit, distributed by CALPIA
    50 x 13 x 8 inches
    Rental at cost

    "The Department of Corrections shall require of every able-bodied prisoner imprisoned in any state prison as many hours of faithful labor in each day and every day during his or her term of imprisonment as shall be prescribed by the rules and regulations of the Director of Corrections." – California Penal Code § 2700 

    CC35933 is the customer number assigned to the nonprofit organization California College of the Arts upon registering with the CALPIA, the market name for the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Prison Industry Authority. 

    Inmates working for CALPIA produce orange Nomex fire suits for the state's 4300 inmate wildland firefighters. 
  • Cameron Rowland
    Insurance, 2016
    Container lashing bars, Lloyd's Register certificates
    102 x 96 x 11.5 or 149 x 18 x 4.5 inches

    Lloyd's of London monopolized the marine insurance of the slave trade by the early 18th Century. Lloyd's Register was established in 1760 as the first classification society in order to provide insurance underwriters information on the quality of vessels. The classification of the ship allows for a more accurate assessment of its risk. Lloyd's Register and other classification societies continue to survey and certify shipping vessels and their equipment. Lashing equipment physically secures goods to the deck of the ship, while its certification is established to insure the value of the goods regardless of their potential loss. 
  • Cameron Rowland
    National Ex-Slave Mutual Relief, Bounty and Pension Association Badges, 2016
    Pot metal
    1.25 x 1.25 inches and 1.25 x 1.25 inches

    The National Ex-Slave Mutual Relief, Bounty and Pension Association was founded in 1898 by ex-slaves I.H. Dickerson and Callie House. It was one of the first organizations to advocate for ex-slave compensation. Members were provided with badges and certificates of membership. The certificate of membership read: 

    “Having paid the membership fee of 50 cents to aid the movement in securing the passage of the Ex-Slave Bounty and Pension Bill, as introduced February 17th, to the 57th House of Representative of The United States by the Hon. E.S. Blackburn of N. C. The holder of this Certificate agrees to pay ten cents per month to the local association to Aid the Sick and Bury The Dead. I hereby testify that I was born a slave in ____________ and am entitled to all the benefits included in said Bill.” 

    The badge on left was dug in Faison, North Carolina. The badge on the right was dug in Vicksburg, Virginia. Both were sold in 2015 by Civil War memorabilia dealers. 
  • Cameron Rowland 
    49-51 Chambers Street - Basement, New York, NY 10007, 2014 
    Wooden table top, base, hardware 
    31 x 42 x 42 inches (78.74 x 106.68 x 106.68 cm)

    Public Surplus is a private auction system that sells government property to private buyers. This circular wooden table was bought on auction from Public Surplus. It was used in the building at 49-51 Chambers Street in New York City, when it was owned by the Mayor’s Office of New York. The City purchased the building in 1965. The building was sold in 2013 and is now privately owned. Everything unclaimed in the building was sold in 2014 via Public Surplus.

    THE CONTRACT, ESSEX STREET, New York, 2014
    Installation view
  • Cameron Rowland 
    Pass-Thru, 2014
    Acrylic, hardware, 24-hour rotator disc
    23 x 20 x 21 inches (58.42 x 50.80 x 53.34 cm)
    Rental

    In some places, businesses use a pass-thru, to pass cash or goods back and forth; this could be at a bank or a liquor store. The highest standard of pass-thru use bullet proof glass, although this material is far too expensive to be used as a protective measure by those businesses where it might be most effective. Therein plastic is used in place of bullet proof glass. They are either made by a manufacturer or by the shop owner. This Pass-Thru was made by Rowland.

    Cameron Rowland 
    Pass-Thru, 2014 
    Acrylic, hardware, 24-hour rotator disc, cardboard 
    23 x 20 x 21 inches (58.42 x 50.80 x 53.34 cm)

    In some places, businesses use a pass-thru, to pass cash or goods back and forth; this could be at a bank or a liquor store. The highest standard of pass-thru use bullet proof glass, although this material is far too expensive to be used as a protective measure by those business where it might be most effective. Therein plastic is used in place of bullet proof glass. They are either made by a manufacturer or by the shop owner. A pass-thru is also an open window, when it is cold it may be covered. This Pass-Thru was made by Rowland.

    Greater New York, MoMA PS1, Long Island City, 2015
    Installation view
  • Cameron Rowland
    Handpunch, 2014-15
    5 Photographs
    Each photograph: 14 x 10.16 inches (35.56 x 25.81 cm)
    Each framed: 16.75 x 12.75 x 1.25 inches (42.55 x 32.39 x 3.18 cm)
    Edition of 5 plus 2 AP

    In businesses where employees' time is one of the most valuable assets, the Handpunch time clock secures this time. Manufactured by Schlage (the American lock company) the Handpunch uses biometric readings of employees' right hands to inhibit false clock-ins and payment for false hours. Biometric recognition was developed to replace photography as a superior form of criminal indexing.

    Overtime: The Art of Work, Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, 2015
    Installation view
  • Cameron Rowland
    Handpunch, 2015
    Photograph
    14 x 10.16 inches (35.56 x 25.81 cm)
    Edition of 5 plus II AP

    In businesses where employees' time is one of the most valuable assets, the Handpunch time clock secures this time. Manufactured by Schlage (the American lock company) the Handpunch uses biometric readings of employees' right hands to inhibit false clock-ins and payment for false hours. Biometric recognition was developed to replace photography as a superior form of criminal indexing.
  • Cameron Rowland
    Bait, Inc, ESSEX STREET, New York, 2014
    Installation view
  • Cameron Rowland
    Incorporation, 2014-Present
    Corporation, EIN, CDE application, Notice of Certification

    BAIT, INC is an empty entity. It was filed with the NYS Department of State on 2/13/2014, File Number: 140213010254; DOS ID: 4529454, under section 402 of the Business Corporation Law. BAIT, INC meets the minimum requirements for status as a Community Development Entity under the New Markets Tax Credit program. BAIT, INC applied to Department of the Treasury for CDE certification on 4/3/2014. BAIT, INC was approved as a CDE on 6/6/2014.
  • Cameron Rowland
    0D20706, 2014
    Lojack transmitter, car battery
    11.75 x 12.75 x 6.5 inches (29.85 x 32.39 x 16.51 cm)

    Lojack is only available aftermarket. When installed, the transmitter serial number and the VIN are registered in a database at the National Crime Information Center, directly linked to enforcement. Lojack receivers in police cars search the serial number of the transmitter based on the VIN of the missing vehicle. This is an unused, unregistered transmitter, powered, which operates for 200 milliseconds every 10 seconds at 173.075 MHz. The frequency 173.075 MHz is available for stolen vehicle recovery systems on a shared basis with the Federal Government.
  • Cameron Rowland
    Constituent, 2014
    Outlet
    Dimensions variable
    Edition of 3 plus I AP

    Outlets allow the flow of current through cable. When electrical cable is sold as scrap, the outlet is often still connected, but cannot be used and has no value. An electrician cuts the power supply to one outlet, removes the faceplate and reveals the copper core of two electrical wires.
  • Cameron Rowland
    Loot, 2014
    Cut copper tube, cardboard box, crate
    11 x 18.5 x 13 inches (27.94 x 46.99 x 33.02 cm)
    Rental

    At some point basic utilities like electricity and water were services controlled by the state, because they relied so heavily on public infrastructure. More and more these flows are valved by private corporations. When abandoned buildings are broken into and stripped of their copper piping, it is sold to scrap yards, where it is cut down. This cut copper was bought from a scrap yard. Copper has a function, its base material has an inherent value.
Maxwell Graham Gallery Valerie Snobeck Jason Loebs Caleb Considine Peter Fend