ESSEX STREET
  • Cameron Rowland
    Encumbrance, 2020
    Mortgage; mahogany double doors: 12 Carlton House Terrace, ground floor, front entrance

    The property relation of the enslaved included and exceeded that of chattel and real estate. Plantation mortgages exemplify the ways in which the value of people who were enslaved, the land they were forced to labor on, and the houses they were forced to maintain were mutually constitutive. Richard Pares writes that “[mortgages] became commoner and commoner until, by 1800, almost every large plantation debt was a mortgage debt.” Slaves simultaneously functioned as collateral for the debts of their masters, while laboring intergenerationally under the debt of the master. The taxation of plantation products imported to Britain, as well as the taxation of interest paid to plantation lenders, provided revenue for Parliament and income for the monarch.

    Mahogany became a valuable British import in the 18th century. It was used for a wide variety of architectural applications and furniture, characterizing Georgian and Regency styles. The timbers were felled and milled by slaves in Jamaica, Barbados, and Honduras among other British colonies. It is one of the few commodities of the triangular trade that continues to generate value for those who currently own it.

    After taking the throne in 1820, George IV dismantled his residence, Carlton House, and the house of his parents, Buckingham House, combining elements from each to create Buckingham Palace. He built Carlton House Terrace between 1827 and 1832 on the former site of Carlton House as a series of elite rental properties to generate revenue for the Crown. All addresses at Carlton House Terrace are still owned by the Crown Estate, manager of land owned by the Crown since 1760.

    12 Carlton House Terrace is leased to the Institute of Contemporary Arts. The building includes four mahogany doors and one mahogany handrail. These five mahogany elements were mortgaged by the Institute of Contemporary Arts to Encumbrance Inc. on January 16th, 2020 for £1000 each. These loans will not be repaid by the ICA. As security for these outstanding debts, Encumbrance Inc. will retain a security interest in these mahogany elements. This interest will constitute an encumbrance on the future transaction of 12 Carlton House Terrace. An encumbrance is a right or interest in real property that does not prohibit its exchange but diminishes its value. The encumbrance will remain on 12 Carlton House Terrace as long as the mahogany elements are part of the building. As reparation, this encumbrance seeks to limit the property’s continued accumulation of value for the Crown Estate. The Crown Estate provides 75% of its revenue to the Treasury and 25% directly to the monarch.
  • Cameron Rowland
    Encumbrance, 2020
    Mortgage; mahogany double doors: 12 Carlton House Terrace, ground floor, front entrance

    The property relation of the enslaved included and exceeded that of chattel and real estate. Plantation mortgages exemplify the ways in which the value of people who were enslaved, the land they were forced to labor on, and the houses they were forced to maintain were mutually constitutive. Richard Pares writes that “[mortgages] became commoner and commoner until, by 1800, almost every large plantation debt was a mortgage debt.” Slaves simultaneously functioned as collateral for the debts of their masters, while laboring intergenerationally under the debt of the master. The taxation of plantation products imported to Britain, as well as the taxation of interest paid to plantation lenders, provided revenue for Parliament and income for the monarch.

    Mahogany became a valuable British import in the 18th century. It was used for a wide variety of architectural applications and furniture, characterizing Georgian and Regency styles. The timbers were felled and milled by slaves in Jamaica, Barbados, and Honduras among other British colonies. It is one of the few commodities of the triangular trade that continues to generate value for those who currently own it.

    After taking the throne in 1820, George IV dismantled his residence, Carlton House, and the house of his parents, Buckingham House, combining elements from each to create Buckingham Palace. He built Carlton House Terrace between 1827 and 1832 on the former site of Carlton House as a series of elite rental properties to generate revenue for the Crown. All addresses at Carlton House Terrace are still owned by the Crown Estate, manager of land owned by the Crown since 1760.

    12 Carlton House Terrace is leased to the Institute of Contemporary Arts. The building includes four mahogany doors and one mahogany handrail. These five mahogany elements were mortgaged by the Institute of Contemporary Arts to Encumbrance Inc. on January 16th, 2020 for £1000 each. These loans will not be repaid by the ICA. As security for these outstanding debts, Encumbrance Inc. will retain a security interest in these mahogany elements. This interest will constitute an encumbrance on the future transaction of 12 Carlton House Terrace. An encumbrance is a right or interest in real property that does not prohibit its exchange but diminishes its value. The encumbrance will remain on 12 Carlton House Terrace as long as the mahogany elements are part of the building. As reparation, this encumbrance seeks to limit the property’s continued accumulation of value for the Crown Estate. The Crown Estate provides 75% of its revenue to the Treasury and 25% directly to the monarch.
  • Cameron Rowland
    Society, 2020
    Cattle brands
    35 ⅜ × 5 ⅛ × 4 ⅜ inches (90 × 13 × 11 cm)
    Rental

    Christopher Codrington was a Barbadian planter whose book collection formed the Codrington Library at Oxford. Codrington died in 1710, leaving his three plantations in Barbados to the Church of England. The Codrington plantations were operated by the Church to fund the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. Enslaved people on the Codrington plantations were branded with the word “society.”

    The word chattel was derived from “cattle” as the property relation of livestock was expanded to refer to all moveable property.
  • 3 & 4 Will. IV c. 73, Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, 2020
    Installation view
  • Cameron Rowland
    probability of escape, 2020
    Police car searchlight
    19 ⅝ × 5 ⅞ × 11 ⅜ inches (50 × 15 × 29 cm)

    “[I]f any poor small free-holder or other person kill a Negro or other Slave by Night, out of the Road or Common Path, and stealing, or attempting to steal his Provision, Swine, or other Goods, he shall not be accountable for it; any Law, Statute, or Ordinance to the contrary notwithstanding.”
    – ‘An Act for the Governing of Negroes,’ Barbados, 1688

    “[I]f any person shall kill a slave stealing in his house or plantation by night, the said slave refusing to submit himself, such person shall not be liable to any damage or action for the same; any law, custom or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.”
    – ‘An Act for the Better Ordering of Slaves,’ South Carolina, 1690

    “A citizen may arrest a person in the nighttime by efficient means as the darkness and the probability of escape render necessary, even if the life of the person should be taken, when the person:
    (a) has committed a felony;
    (b) has entered a dwelling house without express or implied permission;
    (c) has broken or is breaking into an outhouse with a view to plunder;
    (d) has in his possession stolen property; or
    (e) being under circumstances which raise just suspicion of his design to steal or to commit some felony,
    flees when he is hailed.”
    – SC Code § 17-13-20 (2012), South Carolina, current statute
  • Cameron Rowland
    Mooring, 2020
    AB-001-013

    William Rathbone and Sons was a timber merchant company founded in Liverpool in 1746. “[T]he foundation of the Rathbone fortune and business was built on the Africa slave trade.”1 During the 18th century, they imported timber felled and milled by slaves in the West Indies and operated a number of trading ships that sailed to West Indian colonies as well as the Southern States of America.2 Rathbone and Sons’ yard occupied a large portion of the Liverpool South Docks.3 Rathbone and Sons supplied timber for slave ship builders in Liverpool until at least 1783.4 These ships carried enslaved black people who were sold in the West Indies and in British North America. Ships built in Liverpool also carried the slaves who were sold on Negro Row at the Liverpool South Docks.5

    Liverpool built the world’s first wet dock in 1716, allowing cargo ships to dock directly at the port. By 1796, Liverpool had built 28 acres of docks.

    Liverpool’s proximity to Ireland also not only facilitated a profitable trade, but provided a relatively safer route that allowed Liverpool ships less chance to be captured by French privateers. Additionally, the copper and brass manufactures in Lancashire and Ireland allowed for local companies that manufactured African trade goods such as manillas to carry on a prosperous export trade, further giving Liverpool a competitive edge. The relationships forged with nearby merchants not only helped secure trade goods, but also valuable credit terms.6

    In 1784, Rathbone and Sons imported the first consignment of raw cotton to England from the United States.7 From this point, they became stated abolitionists and free trade advocates.8 The abolition of the “West Indian monopoly” on the import of goods to the British Isles would allow for the expansion of U.S. cotton trading. Liverpool became the primary port of 19th-century cotton importation to England. Rathbone and Sons imported American cotton to Liverpool through the American Civil War.9 The company continues to operate as the investment and wealth management firm Rathbone Brothers Plc.

    The mooring at the Albert Dock: AB-001-013 is on the former location of the Rathbone warehouse. 
    This mooring has been rented for the purpose of not being used.

    1. Jehanne Wake, Kleinwort Benson: The History of Two Families in Banking (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 15.
    2. Wake, 16.
    3. Adam Bowett, “The Jamaica Trade: Gillow and the Use of Mahogany in the Eighteenth Century,” Regional Furniture 12 (1998): 22.
    4. Wake, 16.
    5. Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, 2nd ed. (1944; repr. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 52.
    6. Katie McDade, “Liverpool Slave Merchant Entrepreneurial Networks, 1725–1807,” Business History 53, no. 7 (2011): 1094.
    7. Eleanor F. Rathbone, William Rathbone: A Memoir (London: Macmillan and Co. Limited, 1905), 11.
    8. Wake, 15, 31.
    9. Sheila Marriner, “Rathbones’ Trading Activities in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century,” Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire & Cheshire 108 (1956): 118.
  • Cameron Rowland
    Pacotille, 2020
    Brass manillas manufactured in Birmingham, 18th century; glass beads manufactured in Venice, 18th century
    40 ½ × 26 ¾ × 1 ⅛ inches (103 × 68 × 3 cm)
    Rental

    European goods traded for enslaved people were manufactured specifically for this purpose. Manillas were used as a one-directional currency, which Europeans would offer as payment but would never accept. The Portuguese determined the value of slave life at 12–15 manillas in the early 1500s.1 Birmingham was the primary producer of brass manillas in Britain, prior to the city’s central role in the Industrial Revolution. The British also used cheap beads acquired throughout Europe to buy slaves. Eric Williams describes the “triple stimulus to British industry” provided through the export of British goods manufactured for the purchasing of slaves, the processing of raw materials grown by slaves, and the formation of new colonial markets for British-made goods.2 The production of European goods for the slave trade supported domestic manufacturing markets. British trade in West Africa was understood to be nearly 100% profit.

    What renders the Negroe-Trade still more estimable and important is, that near Nine-tenths of those Negroes are paid for in Africa with British Produce and Manufactures only. . . . We send no Specie or Bullion to pay for the Products of Africa, but, ’tis certain, we bring from thence very large Quantities of Gold; . . . From which Facts, the Trade to Africa may very truly be said to be, as it were, all Profit to the Nation.3

    Goods produced for the trade of slaves, which carried nearly no value in Europe, were called pacotille. Pacotille translates from French to English as “rubbish.”4

    1. A. H. M. Kirk-Greene, “The Major Currencies in Nigerian History,” Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 2, no. 1 (December 1960): 146.
    2. Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, 2nd ed. (1944; repr. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 52.
    3. Malachy Postlethwayt, The National and Private Advantages of the African Trade Considered, 2nd ed. (London: John and Paul Knapton, 1746; London: William Otridge, Bookseller, 1772), 3. Citations refer to the Otridge edition.
    4. Marie-Hélène Corréard, “pacotille,” in Pocket Oxford-Hachette French Dictionary: French-English (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 594.
  • Cameron Rowland

    2015 MOCA REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION, 2018

    Donor plaque

     

     The redlining map of Los Angeles drawn by the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation in 1939 gave Bunker Hill, block D37, the lowest possible rating. D37 extended from West 4th Street to West Temple Street, and from Figueroa Street to South Hill Street. The report indicated that residents were “low-income level” and were predominantly “Mexicans and Orientals.” The HOLC’s Residential Security Map report for Bunker Hill states:

     

     It has been through all the phases of decline and is now thoroughly blighted. Subversive racial elements predominate; dilapidation and squalor are everywhere in evidence. It is a slum area and one of the city’s melting pots. There is a slum clearance project under consideration but no definite steps have as yet been taken. It is assigned the lowest of “low red” grade.

     

    The Community Redevelopment Agency of the City of Los Angeles was formed in 1948 under the California Community Redevelopment Act of 1945, in conjunction with the 1937 and 1949 federal Housing Acts, which authorized its “slum removal.” The CRA was granted powers of eminent domain to be used in the redevelopment of “blighted” areas. A primary purpose for the CRA’s redevelopment projects was to increase tax revenue for the city. One of the first redevelopment projects proposed by the CRA was in Bunker Hill, on the basis that the neighborhood spent more tax dollars on police, firefighting, and healthcare than it generated. A CRA pamphlet promoting the project stated, “Blight is a liability, Blight is malignant, Blight is a social peril.” The CRA’s “slum clearance” project in Bunker Hill was adopted in 1959. Through seizure and through sales under the threat of eminent domain, all 7,310 residential units were demolished and their residents were forcibly removed. The CRA’s slum clearance in Bunker Hill was one of the first redevelopment projects to rely on tax increment financing.

     

    In 1980, the CRA issued a request for proposals for a project called California Plaza. Proposals were required to include an outdoor pedestrian plaza, a parking structure, and a modern art museum. The winning group of architects called themselves Bunker Hill Associates. The museum outlined in this proposal became The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles. In 1983, the CRA offered MOCA a lease on the land located at 250 South Grand Avenue for a ninety-nine-year term at no rent.

     

    In October 2015, the CRA sold the land at 250 South Grand Avenue to MOCA for $100,000. One month later, in November 2015, a tax assessment triggered by the sale recorded the value of the land at $8,500,000.

  • Cameron Rowland

    2015 MOCA REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION, 2018

    Donor plaque

     (Detail)

  • Cameron Rowland

    D37, Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, 2018

    Installation view

  • Cameron Rowland 

    Depreciation, 2018 

    Restrictive covenant; 1 acre on Edisto Island, South Carolina 


    40 acres and a mule as reparations for slavery originates in General William Tecumseh Sherman’s Special Field Orders No. 15, issued on January 16, 1865. Sherman’s Field Order 15 was issued out of concern for a potential uprising of the thousands of ex-slaves who were following his army by the time it arrived in Savannah.1 


    The field order stipulated that “The islands from Charleston south, the abandoned rice fields along the rivers for thirty miles back from the sea, and the country bordering the Saint Johns River, Florida, are reserved and set apart for the settlement of the negroes now made free by the acts of war and the proclamation of the President of the United States. Each family shall have a plot of not more than forty acres of tillable ground.”2 


    This was followed by the formation of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in March 1865. 


    In the months immediately following the issue of the field orders, approximately 40,000 former slaves settled in the area designated by Sherman on the basis of possessory title.3 10,000 of these former slaves were settled on Edisto Island, South Carolina.4 


    In 1866, following Lincoln’s assassination, President Andrew Johnson effectively rescinded Field Order 15 by ordering these lands be returned to their previous Confederate owners. 


    Former slaves were given the option to work for their former masters as sharecroppers or be evicted. If evicted, former slaves could be arrested for homelessness under vagrancy clauses of the Black Codes. Those who refused to leave and refused to sign sharecrop contracts were threatened with arrest. 


    Although restoration of the land to the previous Confederate owners was slowed in some cases by court challenges filed by ex-slaves, nearly all the land settled was returned by the 1870s. As Eric Foner writes, “Johnson had in effect abrogated the Confiscation Act and unilaterally amended the law creating the [Freedmen’s] Bureau. The idea of a Freedmen’s Bureau actively promoting black landownership had come to an abrupt end.”5 The Freedmen’s Bureau agents became primary proponents of labor contracts inducting former slaves into the sharecropping system.6 Among the lands that were repossessed in 1866 by former Confederate owners was the Maxcy Place plantation. “A group of freed people were at Maxcy Place in January 1866…The people contracted to work for the proprietor, but no contract or list of names has been found.”7


    The one-acre piece of land at 8060 Maxie Road, Edisto Island, South Carolina, was part of the Maxcy Place plantation. This land was purchased at market value on August 6, 2018, by 8060 Maxie Road, Inc., a nonprofit company formed for the sole purpose of buying this land and recording a restrictive covenant on its use. This covenant has as its explicit purpose the restriction of all development and use of the property by the owner. 


    The property is now appraised at $0. By rendering it legally unusable, this restrictive covenant eliminates the market value of the land. These restrictions run with the land, regardless of the owner. As such, they will last indefinitely. 


    As reparation, this covenant asks how land might exist outside of the legal-economic regime of property that was instituted by slavery and colonization. Rather than redistributing the property, the restriction imposed on 8060 Maxie Road’s status as valuable and transactable real estate asserts antagonism to the regime of property as a means of reparation. 


    1 Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877, updated ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1988; New York: HarperCollins, 2014), 71. 

    2 Headquarters Military Division of the Mississippi, Special Field Orders No. 15 (1865). 

    3 Foner, Reconstruction, 71. 

    4 Charles Spencer, Edisto Island 1861 to 2006: Ruin, Recovery and Rebirth (Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2008), 87. 

    5 Foner, Reconstruction, 161. 

    6 Foner, 161. 

    7 Spencer, 95.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Group of 11 Used Bikes  Item: 0281-007089, 2018

    Group of 11 Used Bikes sold for $287.00

    45 x 130 x 54 inches (114.30 x 330.20 x 137.16 cm)

    Rental at cost

     

    In the United States, property seized by the police is sold at police auction. Auction proceeds are used to fund the police.

     

    Civil asset forfeiture originated in the English Navigation Act of 1660.1 The Navigation Acts were established to maintain the English monopoly on the triangular trade between England, West Africa, and the English colonies.2 As Eric Williams writes, "Negroes, the most important export of Africa, and sugar, the most important export of the West Indies, were the principal commodities enumerated by the Navigation Laws."3 During the seventeenth century, the auction was standardized as a primary component of the triangle trade to sell slaves, goods produced by slaves, and eventually luxury goods. The auction remains widely used as a means to efficiently distribute goods for the best price.4

     

    Police, ICE, and CBP may retain from 80% to 100% of the revenue generated from the auction of seized property.

     

    Rental at cost: Artworks indicated as "Rental at cost" are not sold. Each of these artworks may be rented for 5 years for the total price realized at police auction.

     

    1 Caleb Nelson, "The Constitutionality of Civil Forfeiture," The Yale Law Journal 125, no. 8 (June 2016), https:// www.yalelawjournal.org/feature/the-constitutionality-of-civil-forfeiture.

    2 Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1944), 56-57.

    3 Williams, 57.

    4 Brian Learmount, A History of the Auction (London: Barnard & Learmount, 1985), 30-31.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Birmingham, Galerie Buchholz, Cologne, Germany, 2017

    Installation view

  • Cameron Rowland

    Jim Crow, 2017

    Jim Crow rail bender

    35 1/2 x 7 7/8 x 17 3/5 inches (91.4 x 20 x 44 cm)

    Rental

     

    Jim Crow is a racial slur, derived from the name of the minstrel character played by Thomas D. Rice in the 1830s. A Jim Crow is also a type of manual railroad rail bender. It has been referred to by this name in publications from 1870 to the present. The lease of ex-slave prisoners to private industry immediately following the Civil War is known as the convict lease system. Many of the first convict lease contracts were signed by railroad companies. Plessy v. Ferguson contested an 1890 Louisiana law segregating black railroad passengers. The Supreme Court upheld the law as constitutional. This created a precedent for laws mandating racial segregation, later to be known as Jim Crow laws.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Norfolk Southern (Tennessee), 2017

    Steel relay rail

    7 1/2 x 192 1/2 x 29 3/4 inches (18 x 489 x 73 cm)

     

    Relay rail is rail that has been removed from its original line and resold. Relay rail was first sold by railroad companies to mining companies for pit railways. Steel rail is made using coal and iron ore.

     

    In the late 1860s, the Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad; the Georgia and Alabama Railroad; the Selma, Rome and Dalton Railroad; and the Macon and Brunswick Railroad were constructed using convict lease labor. By 1895 all of these lines had been consolidated into Southern Railway, which built hubs in Birmingham, Chattanooga, and Atlanta, allowing it to transport coal and iron ore throughout the Southeast. In 1982, Southern Railway merged with Norfolk and Western Railway to create Norfolk Southern. This Norfolk Southern relay rail was used in the Tennessee section of the system.

  • Cameron Rowland

    RWE, 2017

    Electrical power

     

    Rheinisch-Westfälisches Elektrizitätswerk AG was founded in 1898 in Essen as a coal power company. In 1900 the leading coal producers were the U.S., the UK, and Germany. Germany has remained the leading coal producer in Europe. As of 2016, RWE was the largest electricity supplier in Germany, providing 23% of the country’s electrical power. In 2016, 44% of the company’s energy supply was derived from coal. Its four most productive plants are coal-powered, and are located in the Nordrhein-Westfalen region. The company operates 3 coal mines, which are located in the same region. The electrical power provider at Galerie Buchholz on Neven-DuMont-Str. has been changed, and the power will be supplied by RWE for one year.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Korakukan Tenjin Water Test, 2016

    Water, lead test


    The Korakukan Tenjin Public School was relocated in 2012. Since then the former school building at 9-24 Tenjin-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi has been used to store emergency supplies, but much of it remains unused. The city of Okayama has allowed this building to be used as a site for the 2016 Okayama Art Summit. The drinking water in the building has been tested for lead by National Testing Laboratories in the United States. The EPA action level for drinking water in the U.S. is .015 mg/L.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Korakukan Tenjin Water Test, 2016

    Water, lead test

     

    The Korakukan Tenjin Public School was relocated in 2012. Since then the former school building at 9-24 Tenjin-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi has been used to store emergency supplies, but much of it remains unused. The city of Okayama has allowed this building to be used as a site for the 2016 Okayama Art Summit. The drinking water in the building has been tested for lead by National Testing Laboratories in the United States. The EPA action level for drinking water in the U.S. is .015 mg/L.

  • Cameron Rowland

    9102000, Artists Space, New York, 2016

    Installation view

  • Cameron Rowland

    9102000, Artists Space, New York, 2016

    Installation view

  • Cameron Rowland

    Leveler (Extension) Rings for Manhole Openings, 2016

    Cast aluminum, pallet, distributed by Corcraft

    118 x 127 x 11 inches (299.72 × 322.58 × 27.94 cm)

    Rental at cost

     

    Manhole leveler rings are cast by prisoners in Elmira Correctional Facility. When roads are repaved, they are used to adjust the height of manhole openings and maintain the smooth surface of the road. Work on public roads, which was central to the transition from convict leasing to the chain gang, continues within many prison labor programs. The road is a public asset, instrumental to commercial development.


    Rental at cost: Artworks indicated as "Rental at cost" are not sold. Each of these artworks may be rented for 5 years for the total cost of the Corcraft products that constitute it.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Attica Series Desk, 2016

    Steel, powder coating, laminated particleboard, distributed by Corcraft

    60 x 71.5 x 28.75 inches (152.40 x 181.61 x 73.03 cm)

    Rental at cost

     

    The Attica Series Desk is manufactured by prisoners in Attica Correctional Facility. Prisoners seized control of the D-Yard in Attica from September 9th to 13th 1971. Following the inmate's immediate demands for amnesty, the first in their list of practical proposals was to extend the enforcement of "the New York State minimum wage law to prison industries" Inmates working in New York State prisons are currently paid $0.10 to $1.14 an hour. Inmates in Attica produce furniture for government offices throughout the state. This component of government administration depends on inmate labor.


    Rental at cost: Artworks indicated as "Rental at cost" are not sold. Each of these artworks may be rented for 5 years for the total cost of the Corcraft products that constitute it.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Insurance, 2016

    Container lashing bars, Lloyd's Register certificates

    102 × 96 × 30 inches (259.08 × 243.84 × 76.20 cm) 

    or: 114 × 30 × 4 inches (289.56 × 76.20 × 10.16 cm)

     

    Lloyd's of London monopolized the marine insurance of the slave trade by the early 18th Century. Lloyd's Register was established in 1760 as the first classification society in order to provide insurance underwriters information on the quality of vessels. The classification of the ship allows for a more accurate assessment of its risk. Lloyd's Register and other classification societies continue to survey and certify shipping vessels and their equipment. Lashing equipment physically secures goods to the deck of the ship, while its certification is established to insure the value of the goods regardless of their potential loss.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Disgorgement, 2016

    Reparations Purpose Trust, Aetna Shares

     

    Aetna, amongst other insurance companies, issued slave insurance policies, which combined property and life insurance. These policies were taken out by slave masters on the lives of slaves, and provided partial payments for damage to the slave and full payment for the death of the slave. Death or damage inflicted by the master could not be claimed. The profits incurred by these policies are still intact within Aetna.

     

    In 1989 Congressman John Conyers of Michigan first introduced Congressional Bill H.R. 40, which would "Establish the Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African Americans to examine slavery and discrimination in the colonies and the United States from 1619 to the present and recommend appropriate remedies." The bill would convene a research commission, that would, among other responsibilities, make a recommendation as to whether a formal apology for slavery is owed, whether reparations are owed, what form reparations would then take and who would receive them. Conyers has reintroduced the bill to every session of congress since then. This bill acquired 48 cosponsors in 1999-2000. Currently it has no cosponsors.

     

    In 2000 the state of California passed the bill SB 2199, which required all insurance companies conducting business in the state of California to publish documentation of slave insurance policies that they or their parent companies had issued previously. In 2002 a lawyer named Deadria Farmer-Paellmann filed the first corporate reparations class-action lawsuit seeking disgorgement from 17 contemporary financial institutions including Aetna, Inc., which had profited from slavery. Farmer-Paellmann pursued property law claims on the basis that these institutions had been enriched unjustly by slaves who were neither compensated nor agreed to be uncompensated. Farmer-Paellman called for these profits and gains to be disgorged from these institutions to descendants of slaves.

     

    The Reparations Purpose Trust forms a conditionality between the time of deferral and continued corporate growth. The general purpose of this trust is “to acquire and administer shares in Aetna, Inc. and to hold such shares until the effective date of any official action by any branch of the United States government to make financial reparations for slavery, including but not limited to the enactment and subsequent adoption of any recommendations pursuant to H.R. 40 – Commission to Study Reparation Proposals for African-Americans Act.” As a purpose trust registered in the state of Delaware this trust can last indefinitely and has no named beneficiaries.

     

    The initial holdings of Reparations Purpose Trust consists of 90 Aetna shares. In the event that federal financial reparations are paid, the trust will terminate and its shares will be liquidated and granted to the federal agency charged with distributions as a corporate addendum to these payments. The grantor of the Reparations Purpose Trust is Artists Space, its trustee is Michael M. Gordon, and its enforcer is Cameron Rowland. The Reparations Purpose Trust gains tax-exemption from its grantor’s nonprofit status.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Bait, Inc, ESSEX STREET, New York, 2014

    Installation view

  • Cameron Rowland

    Incorporation, 2014-Present

    Corporation, EIN, CDE application, Notice of Certification

     

    BAIT, INC is an empty entity. It was filed with the NYS Department of State on 2/13/2014, File Number: 140213010254; DOS ID: 4529454, under section 402 of the Busin Corporation Law.

     

    BAIT, INC meets the minimum requirements for status as a Community Development Entity under the New Markets Tax Credit program. BAIT, INC applied to Department of the Treasury for CDE certification on 4/3/2014. BAIT, INC was approved as a CDE on 6/6/2014.

  • Cameron Rowland

    0D20706, 2014

    Lojack transmitter, car battery

    11 3/4 x 12 3/4 x 6 1/2 inches (29.85 x 32.2 x 16.51 cm)

     

    Lojack is only available aftermarket. When installed, the transmitter serial number and the VIN are registered in a database at the National Crime Information Center, directly linked to enforcement.

     

    Lojack receivers in police cars search the serial number of the transmitter based on the VIN of the missing vehicle.

     

    This is an unused, unregistered transmitter, powered, which operates for 200 milliseconds every 10 seconds at 173.075 MHz. The frequency 173.075 MHz is available for stolen vehicle recovery systems on a shared basis with the Federal Government.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Loot, 2014

    Copper fittings, bag

    18 1/2 x 17 x 15 inches (46.99 x 43.18 x 38.10 cm)

    Rental

     

    At some point basic utilities like electricity and water were services controlled by the state, because they relied so heavily on public infrastructure. More and more these flows are valved by private corporations. Someone sold these usable copper fittings in this bag to a scrap yard. They were bought back in the same bag. Copper has a function, its base material has an inherent value.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Constituent, 2014

    Outlet

    Dimensions variable

    Edition of 3

     

    Outlets allow the flow of current through cable. When electrical cable is sold as scrap, the outlet is often still connected, but cannot be used and has no value. An electrician cuts the power supply to one outlet, removes the faceplate and reveals the copper core of two electrical wires.

  • Cameron Rowland

    Handpunch, 2014

    Photograph

    16.5 x 12.75 x 1.25 inches (41.91 x 32.39 x 3.18 cm)

    Framed: 16 3/4 x 12 3/4 x 1 1/4 inches (42.55 x 32.39 x 3.18 cm)

    Edition of 5

     

    In businesses where employees' time is one of the most valuable assets, the Handpunch time clock secures this time. Manufactured by Schlage (the American lock company) the Handpunch uses biometric readings of employees' right hands to inhibit false clock-ins and payment for false hours. Biometric recognition was developed to replace photography as a superior form of criminal indexing.

Maxwell Graham Gallery Valerie Snobeck Jason Loebs Caleb Considine Peter Fend